قبل الحادث بشهر 1998

الأربعاء، 13 أكتوبر، 2010

Forms of Dystonia




Focal dystonias
BlepharospasmDystonia that affects the muscles of the eyelids and brow

Cervical dystonia - spasmodic torticollis
Dystonia that affects the neck and sometimes the shoulders

Oromandibular dystonia - cranial dystonia
Symptoms include forceful contractions of the face, jaw, and/or tongue

Laryngeal dystonia - spasmodic dysphonia
Dystonia that affects the vocal cords


Hand dystonia - writer’s cramp
Dystonia of the fingers, hand, and/or forearm


Musicians'dystonias
Hand dystonia | Embouchure dystonia
Musicians With Dystonia

Early-onset generalized dystonia - DYT1 and non-DYT1
Early-onset generalized dystonia is characterized by the twisting of the limbs and torso

Dopa-responsive dystonia
A group of dystonias that respond to a medication called levodop

Myoclonic dystonia
A hereditary form of dystonia that includes prominent myoclonus symptoms


Paroxysmal dystonias and dyskinesias
Episodic movement disorders in which abnormal movements occur only during attacks

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism
A hereditary form of dystonia that includes symptoms parkinsonism

Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism
A hereditary form of dystonia that includes symptoms of parkinsonism


Secondary dystonias
Dystonia that is triggered by factors such as trauma, medication exposure, toxins

Trauma
Dystonia may follow trauma to the head and/or to a specific body area

Drug-induced
Specific drugs are capable of causing dystonia

Toxins
Several rare toxins are known to cause movement disorders

Neurological and metabolic disorders
Dystonia can occur as a symptom of multiple disorders

Psychogenic dystonia
Dystonia that is secondary to psychological disturbances